Lesson 286

Sonatina in G: Second Movement: Left Hand

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Hello and welcome back. I'm Joseph Hoffman, and in this lesson we'll be learning how to play the left hand part for "Sonatina in G" second movement. Let's check out the score to get started. All right, here's the score for our second movement. We're checking out the left hand part today. Let's jump right into some chord analysis. One of my favorite things to do as you know by now, if you know me well. And I'm going to draw a box around some notes that I would like you to pause the video and analyze. So, pause the video and figure out what chords these are. Do your best. If there's some you get stuck on don't worry. We'll take a look at it in just a moment. Pause to figure it out, then press play to go on. Okay, in this first box what do we have? A G with a B and a D. Put that all together: that's a G major chord. And since we're in the key of G, we could also call that a I chord. I'll put roman numerals here. What did you get for this chord? We have an F-sharp. I hope you remembered that this f is a sharp because of our key signature. So we have F-sharp, C, and D. Put that all together and that's our V7 chord, which we learned way back in unit two. That's the V7 chord of the G. Well, how do we know that? If you take this D and put it on the bottom, you can see it's part of this D7 chord. D major plus this interval of a seventh, which is why it's called D7. We just put the D on top. We leave out the A. So it's an inversion actually of the D7 chord. Or in roman numerals V7. What do we have here? It's another I chord G major. What do we get here? You have an E, a G, and a B. E G B spells an E minor chord. Now let's figure out the roman numeral. In the key of G, what is E minor? Well we just count. G is one, two, three, four, five, six. E minor would be our vi chord, and since it's minor we use lower case vi. E minor vi chord, and here we have. Now we have a C-sharp, and because of this fourth I can tell I have an inversion. So I'm going to put the C-sharp on the bottom. That is a C-sharp diminished chord. How would we write that? We would do a C# and then sometimes you can put a little circle to stand for diminished, or sometimes you'll see it written out d-i-m. Either way can stand for C-sharp diminished. Now, roman numeral, uh we're stuck because C-sharp is not diatonic in the key of G major there actually isn't a roman numeral that could express this chord. It's actually borrowed from another key. With that C-sharp it's like Beethoven or whoever composed this is temporarily moving us into the key of D, which is the chord we land on in the next measure. It's actually called a secondary dominant, which we'll learn about later. It's an advanced theory skill, but for now we'll just leave that roman numeral blank. Okay, but if you're dying to know this is like college level music theory. We could call that the vii chord of the V chord because the V chord is D major, which is where we're going, and the C-sharp diminished chord is the vii chord in the key of D which is the V chord. So it's the vii of the V chord. That sounds way too confusing. That's okay, it's college level music theory, and we'll learn more about that in a much later unit. Now I also real quick wanted to look at the rhythms in measure three here. We've got, with these stems down, the rhythm you'll see is this dotted quarter note, dotted quarter note. Which we would just count 1 2 3 4 5 6, and that's what your pinky, or finger 5, is going to be playing. That rhythm with the stems down, but at the same time your other fingers have this other rhythm. You've got a rest, TI-TI, rest, TI-TI. So your pinky or finger 5 will be holding down these notes while your other fingers go 1 2 3 4 5 6. And that's why you see this rest right here because on beat 1 your pinky plays but your other fingers are resting. Sometimes that's called a poly rhythm, where you have two rhythms going on at the same time. Okay a few more chords to analyze. Pause the video. See if you can figure these out. If you get stuck on one, no worries, and we'll check it out together. All right, for this first chord we have a D, an F-sharp, another D. And well, what chord is that? If you look up in the right hand you also see this A. Sometimes composers may leave a certain note out of a chord, but that's going to sound and feel like a D major chord. And what did we get here? A G major, which is our I chord, and then here we get another chord that's not diatonic in G major. Why is that? Well you see this F-sharp here, sorry, I mean you see this F natural here, and remember that to be a diatonic chord you have to only use the notes of the key we're in. Well in the key of G major, there is no F natural. So again this is a borrowed chord, which we're borrowing from the key of C. So again, we'll learn more about how to analyze these kinds of chords later, but for now I'll just tell you that's a G7 chord. Then over here, what did we get? A D, a G, and a B. That's a G major second inversion chord, and then here, we've left out the A, which again you can find up in the right hand part, but if you look at those together we'll see that's our D7, or in roman numerals V7 chord. Now let's try to play it. In this left-hand part, we're doing what's c ...